The introduction of copper coinage in England

The introduction of copper coinage in England

How did copper coinage arrive in English pockets to complement silver and what can we learn from its introduction?

Mohur, rupee, dam: Indian trimetallism

Mohur, rupee, dam: Indian trimetallism

In this essay, we examine the ‘trimetallic’ initiative operated in India during the early Mughal period.

Divergence of Austrian from Mengerian tradition

Divergence of Austrian from Mengerian tradition

In this essay, we examine the differences in methodology between Menger and his so-called academic descendants.

The ‘owner’ and ‘worker’

The ‘owner’ and ‘worker’

How would companies of people form under true, free exchange? What is a ‘job’ under free exchange?

Cost and price

Cost and price

How should we look at the cost of making money? This note aims to expand on this.

The birth of the central bank currency swap

The birth of the central bank currency swap

Currency swaps (and all kinds of swaps) are considered as a ‘standard’ tool in trading and asset management under the fiat hegemon. But how exactly did the first central bank currency swap arise?